Here are some interesting stuff, old and new

| "Boycott Pravasi Bharatiya Divas" |

| Tamil Virtual University (TVU) |

| Indian-Americans Use Cash to Aid 'Motherland' |

| INS News Brief | INS "Quick Guide to Public Charge" |

| India To Introduce Internet Trading |

| An Indian in Hollywood |

| Hindi Films in Washington | Role Model |

| Employment Visas | Tiffinwallas of Mumbai | Animal Abuse in India |

| NASA'S Chandra Observatory |

| Internet Policy in India | Bangladesh Happiest Nation |

| Soda Can Hazards |

| Jinnah Film | India Technology | Census |


Dual Citizenship and India

Despite making so much song and dance about it for almost a decade, and LM Singhvi committee visiting every country on the planet “listening to the Indian Diaspora”, India has not provided the facility of dual citizenship to Indians living abroad, what former Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee called Bharatvanshis. The so-called Indian Overseas Citizenship is not worth the paper it is written on. It is not citizenship at all. One cannot even step on the soil of India with an IOC document in their hand. It is simply a multiple visa for India with a glorified name. Indians holding US or UK passports will have to produce their foreign passports while entering India, along with the IOC document. The Indian government has played the biggest fraud on the Indian Diaspora!!

The status of PIO cards is even more ludicrous. It took the Government of India more than fifty years to recognise that we are people of Indian origin, while the rest of the world always knew it!!

The ingenuity displayed by the present Indian government in scuttling the proposal to provide dual citizenship shows that it still suffers from the medieval thinking that once you go abroad, you are no longer a real Indian. A strong attachment to the geography of India is a part of the Indian psyche. Hinduism and India are so intertwined that it is impossible to separate the two. Shastras (the Hindu religious books) describe India as the sacred land. For most of the Indians, nothing exists beyond the borders of India – the world means India, and India means the world to them. It wasn’t long ago when it was considered a sin to leave the shores of India. When Mahatma Gandhi left India to study Law in England, he had to seek a special pardon from the priests. Even in the Independent India, the term NRI has stood for Not Required Indian, particularly during the Congress rule.

“Pure Indians” have always looked at the West as something corrupt. Indian films are replete with scenes where the Western culture is mocked at and condemned. Even today, despite a lot of collaboration with the US and UK film industries, in the mainstream Hindi cinema establishing the superiority of Indian values against Western values is a must.

This Indian mentality that cannot think beyond the boundaries of India has been befittingly described by the Urdu poet Sahir Ludhianvi in his poem Shahzade (Princes): Think of your great past, and go to sleep! Why to bother about what’s happening in the West (or the rest of the world)!

Given this mind-set, India has always considered Dual Citizenship a self-contradiction in terms. India has believed that if you are a citizen of one country, you cannot be a citizen of another “either with us or against us” an approach at best justifiable in the case of enemy nations. But is every other country in the world India’s enemy!

Think of a situation: A White English person coming to live in India says to the Indian government: “I would live and work here, but would send a part of the money I earn here to Britain. As far as loyalty to India is concerned, you should know I’m English and a British citizen first. Furthermore, I should also be entitled to become an Indian citizen, after four years of my stay here. And, by the way, I should be entitled to vote in the Indian elections from Day One of my stay in India since I am a Common Wealth citizen. Most of the people living in India, particularly the Indian government, cannot even imagine the situation. Yet, in the US, UK, and other Western democracies, that is exactly the situation. For instance, most of the Indians living in Britain send money earned in Britain to India, and hardly any person of Indian origin is in the British army. And yet it is not Britain that treats these people as aliens or denies them the right to citizenship! As long as the prospective citizen’s actions and inactions are within the law of the land, the UK and US governments would have no problem in granting them their countries’ citizenship. Despite immigrants’ attachment to another country and their repatriation of money earned in the UK, the British government allows them to get British citizenship and have equal rights in the UK, while retaining their former citizenship. British citizens are free to have the citizenship of another country – India, US, Canada, Russia, China, or whatever. The same is the case in the other European countries, US, Canada, Australia, New Zealand – basically in all the civilised democratic countries. They provide their immigrant and migrant people the facility of dual citizenship in true sense. They don’t see any contradiction or danger in that. But the country professing to believe in the philosophy of Vasudev Kutumbkam does!

The nationalist section of the Indian politics harps on the foreign origin of Mrs Sonia Gandhi, and accuses her of not accepting Indian citizenship for a long time. The so-called ‘progressive and secular’ political leaders of Indian polity describe Sonia Gandhi as “Our Bahu”. Yet, no one has ever bothered to see why Sonia Gandhi, married into the top most political family of the country, did not go for Indian citizenship! Too much botheration for the sake of a Firangi! The answer lies in the fact that, unlike most of the civilized countries in the world, India forces the prospective citizen to give up their former citizenship - “ If you want to belong to your ‘Sasural’, you have to sever your relationship with your ‘Mayka’!

Not only it violates the principle of respecting the dignity of the individual (a principle supposedly enshrined in the Indian Constitution as well) in the case of persons of foreign origin such as Sonia Gandhi, India rewards its own people’s attachment and loyalty to their motherland by declaring them unfit to be Indian citizens! These people consider India their spiritual home. But in the eyes of the Indian political leadership it’s no more than a shallow nostalgia.

India refuses to accept that while being a good citizen of their adopted country, one could have sentimental attachment with the land of their forefathers! India refuses to learn that going to the other parts of the world can give you a better vision of your own country! This blind vision of the Indian political leadership is hurting India itself. Most of the Indians living in the US, UK, etc, do not take up those countries’ citizenship despite the eligibility because for that they would have to give up Indian citizenship, which has a great sentimental value for them, and thus are disqualified from holding any important positions in those countries (No country would give important positions in its establishment to non-citizens). Thus, unlike other immigrant communities, Indians fail to develop any clout in those countries. As former BBC Producer and the editor of _www.nrifm.com_ ( , Vijay Rana, in his article - _ ( - points out, the people of Pakistani origin living in those countries, at the first opportunity available, obtain the citizenship of those countries, making themselves eligible for each and every thing, including access to the core of the establishment, in those countries – without their relationship with Pakistan getting at all affected. By barring loyal Indians from accepting other countries’ citizenship and the right to vote there, India is doing no favour to itself. And it’s not only that non-resident Indians are not able to develop a political influence in their countries of residence, it affects their economic and business life too. For instance, a British citizen is free to travel to any country in the European Union. But an Indian citizen has to obtain visas from each and every country in Europe for the intended visits. By creating hurdles in the way of the Indians living abroad, it is not going to benefit India.

The Indian establishment gives two reasons for not giving fully-fledged citizenship to the Indians living abroad. One, granting dual citizenship to NRIs “would create a risk for the security of the country”. Two, it would give voting and other political rights to persons not living in India, which “could create an abnormal situation”.

Let’s look at both these points in some detail. The Indian authorities say that if Indians living in the US or the UK are given a full passport, then Pakistanis and Bangladeshis will be able to travel to India freely and it could pose a security threat to India. How? If the citizenship is awarded to the Indians who left India for the US or the UK after 26th January 1950, how can a Pakistani living in the UK get Indian citizenship? This thesis advanced by the Indian establishment is beyond comprehension. No doubt, there have been some persons of Indian origin who became a threat to the security of India, particularly some Sikh militants living in the UK, Canada and the US, during the 1980s. But it doesn’t mean that all Indians, or all Sikhs, living abroad are a threat to India. The reality is the opposite. After the fizzling out of the Sikh militancy, no NRI has ever been found to be working against the security of India. The fact is that the real security risks are living as Resident Indian citizens in Mumbai and Malegaon. On what basis the Indian establishment is calling NRIs (vis-Ã -vis Resident Indians) a security risk is beyond facts and logic. As Karan Johar has lately said, the Indians living abroad are more Indian than the Indians living in India. How can such people be a security risk to India? And, most importantly, if there are some suspect cases, why can’t the Indian authorities check out and deny the citizenship to those particular individuals, rather than punishing the whole Indian community living abroad. Would they treat all the Muslim s living in India as security risks just because a few Muslims have been involved in anti-national activities? If not, why are they doing that to the NRIs?

As far as the attitude of Indian political leadership towards the political rights of the NRIs is concerned, it’s so ironical that the Ninth of January has been declared Pravasi Bharatiya Divas, the day Mahatma Gandhi returned to India in 1915 after his two-decade long stay in South Africa to start a political movement in India, and yet the legislation, enacted to celebrate Mahatma Gandhi’s return, denies Indians returning to India that very right! On Ninth January Mahatma Gandhi returned to India to do nothing else but politics! And on Ninth January every year the Indian government tells the NRIs that you can do everything else but politics! What a great tribute to Mahatma Gandhi’s role in the freedom movement! Is the present Indian leadership afraid that another Mahatma may return and uproot the Brown Sahibs this time! In fact, this is the crux of the matter. The Indian political leaders are fearful that INDIANS with selfless love for their motherland, equipped with a better vision, could uproot the self-serving, short-sighted, corrupt, casteist and racist dimwits at the helm of affairs of the Indian nation. Security risk is just an excuse. Govinda and Dharmendra not attending the Parliament for two years creates no problem, but a voter living in London or New York could create an “abnormal situation”!

The only way to make the Indian government see sense and act truly in India’s interest would be that all the INDIANS LIVING ABROAD should boycott the hollow functions organised by the Indian government and its ministers in India and abroad in the name of NRIs. Let’s tell them, “We are not lesser Indians. We don’t live in India, India lives in us. Nothing else but proper dual citizenship will do”. They will have to let Indians living abroad obtain citizenship of their countries of residence, and let foreigners like Sonia Gandhi to retain their earlier citizenship while obtaining Indian citizenship - as all other civilised countries do!

Krishan Tyagi
77A Rectory Road
Hampshire RG27 9JH
United Kingdom
Phone/Fax: +44 (0) 1256-762708
e-mail: _krishantyagi@aol.com_ (


TVU - Tamil Virtual University, has been inaugurated by the Tamil Nadu government. This is an Internet based educational system to learn and promote Thamizh. Karunanadhi expressed the hope that the TVU would be an instrument for integrating the 75 millions of Tamilans living in 40 countries.


Ben Barber
THE WASHINGTON TIMES (© The Washington Times)

Indian-Americans, who now hold 40 percent of high-tech jobs in Silicon Valley and the Washington area, are pouring money into political campaigns and helping change the shape of U.S. relations with India, where President Clinton will visit next month.

The growing clout of Indian-Americans, who collectively earned $60 billion in California's Silicon Valley last year, is partly responsible for a recent tilt in America's foreign policy away from Cold War ally Pakistan and toward India, officials and analysts say.

"Like all Americans participating in politics, American-Indians are now sufficiently mature to advocate for their motherland much as the Jews became capable advocates for Israel," said Rep. Gary Ackerman, New York Democrat and chairman of the 118-member Congressional Caucus on India and Indian Americans.

Of an estimated 1 million Indian-Americans nationwide, about 80,000 to 100,000 live in the Washington area, mainly linked to high-tech corridors in Virginia and Maryland.

Indian-Americans contribute both to Democrats, such as Mr. Ackerman and President Clinton, and to Republicans, such as Texas Gov. George W. Bush and Senate Foreign Relations Committee Chairman Jesse Helms of North Carolina.

Mr. Helms, a staunch backer of anti-communist Pakistan when it hosted anti-Soviet Afghan refugees in the 1980s, now tends to view India with a newfound sympathy and understanding, congressional sources say.

Mark Lagon, Mr. Helms' senior foreign policy aide, said Wednesday at a Georgetown University forum that the United States should drop sanctions on India, imposed after Indian and Pakistani nuclear tests in 1998, but he did not offer such largess to Pakistan.

Swadesh Chatterjee, president of the Indian-American Forum for Political Education, has met with Mr. Helms and, according to congressional sources, opened him up to a new view of India.

During the Cold War, India was both anti-Western and a big Soviet arms customer. It has since begun to reform its quasi-socialist economy, and the United States has become its main trading partner.

Some U.S. strategic thinkers also find India increasingly valuable as a long-term counterbalance to the growth of Chinese influence in Asia.

Indian-Americans, who have only recently begun to feel at home enough to become politically active, were briefly frightened away from activism after scandals involving foreign contributions to Mr. Clinton's 1996 re-election campaign, a congressional source said.

Indian-American lawyer Lalit Gadhia was sentenced to three months in jail after he admitted funneling money from an Indian diplomat into U.S. political campaigns. Chinese government cash was also suspected of being laundered through Chinese-Americans.

However, those scandals have since faded, and the profile of Indian-American political activity appears to be increasing in a long-term trend apart from U.S. election cycles.

Indian-American businessmen, for example, met with White House aides Thursday to discuss joining the president on his March 19-26 trip to India. Mr. Clinton will include a one-day visit to Bangladesh sandwiched between longer stops in India, but has not yet announced whether he will stop in Pakistan.

A prominent Pakistani-American Thursday told The Washington Times that Mr. Clinton, in an effort to prop up pro-Western forces in Pakistan, would make a brief stop at Lahore airport at the end of his trip to India.

This was denied by Deputy Secretary of State Strobe Talbott, who said in an interview, "The decision has not yet been made."

Pakistani officials also disputed a report in The Times on Wednesday that the U.S. Secret Service was against a presidential visit to Pakistan because it believed Muslim militants had infiltrated Pakistan's Inter Service Intelligence (ISI) agency.

"I can deny that ISI is infiltrated by extremist groups," said Zameer Akram, deputy chief of the Pakistan Embassy.

"Senior administration officials apologized . . . for the leak [to The Times]," Mr. Akram said.

About 300,000 Indian-Americans work in high-technology firms in California's Silicon Valley, where they earned $60 billion last year, Stanford University economist Rafiq Dossani told a forum at the Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) Thursday. They are beginning to funnel their incomes, which average $200,000 a year, into southern India's high-technology boom, already surpassing its export industry as a source of foreign cash, he said. Nationwide, Indian-American income averages $60,000, according to the 1990 census, higher than any other Asian immigrant group.

The Silicon Valley Indian-Americans are owners and managers as well as technicians, and they are creating more than 15 percent of high-tech startups, Mr. Dossani said.

They are also turning their economic clout into political force, Mr. Dossani said. They are urging Mr. Clinton to grant additional work visas to Indian software workers, an issue likely to be on the agenda of Indian Prime Minister Atal Behari Vajpayee on Mr. Clinton's visit to New Delhi.

A source linked to the congressional Caucus on India said that when militants from Pakistan attacked Indian troops in Kashmir last spring at Kargil, the Indian-American community lashed out with its new political clout.

"On Kargil, the Indian-American community was fired up," the source said. "They flooded the congressional offices with faxes, e-mail, telephone calls and personal visits."

The House International Relations Committee later passed a resolution blaming Pakistan for the events in Kargil.

Michael T. Clark, executive director of the U.S.-India Business Council, said that the Silicon Valley Indians are following a much larger wave of political activity by Indian-Americans across the country who have contributed to political candidates.

Indian-Americans were at first divided into groups based on their origin in India but are gradually forming larger associations.

"We are not as well organized as AIPAC [the America-Israel Public Affairs Committee]," the congressional source said. "We do not know who is giving what to who and when. At the moment, we do not even have a real Washington office or presence."

An important test of Indian-Americans' growing clout is the effort to separate India's relations with America from those of Pakistan.

Mr. Talbott noted that there was strong support in the administration for "delinking" India and Pakistan and allowing a decision on a trip to India to be made independently of one on Pakistan.

"We believe both countries when each wants to be treated in its own light," Mr. Talbott said at the CSIS forum Thursday. "Very much in that light the president will make his decision on his itinerary."



A monthly supplement to Weekly News Update on the Americas
Vol. 2, No. 10 - October 1999
(publication date 10/30/99)

1. Thousands March for Amnesty
2. "Secret Evidence" Detainee Freed
3. INS "Used" by Union-Buster
4. INS Raids Pentagon Construction Site
5. Controversy Over Florida Raid
6. New Jersey Detainee on Hunger Strike

Immigration News Briefs is a monthly supplement to Weekly News Update on the Americas, published by the Nicaragua Solidarity Network of Greater New York. A one-year subscription (52 issues) to Weekly News Update on the Americas is $25. To subscribe to the Update and Immigration News Briefs, send a check or money order for US $25 payable to Nicaragua Solidarity Network, 339 Lafayette Street, New York, NY 10012. Please specify if you want the electronic or print version. For information about the Update, contact <> or check out our web site at <>. Back issues and source materials are available on request. Separate subscriptions to Immigration News Briefs are available free by email by contacting <>.

If you are accessing Immigration News Briefs for free on electronic newsgroups, we would appreciate any financial support you can contribute. We are a small, all-volunteer organization funded solely through subscriptions and contributions. Feel free to reproduce Immigration News Briefs, or reprint or re-post any information from them, but please credit us and include our full contact information so that people will know how to find us. Send us a copy of any publication where we are cited or reprinted. We also welcome your comments and ideas: send them to us at the street address above or via e-mail to <>.


On Oct. 16 some 10,000 protesters from across the country (or "more than 5,000" according to the Washington Post) marched and rallied in Washington, DC to demand that Congress grant an unconditional general amnesty for all undocumented immigrants. The vast majority of protesters were immigrants from Latin America. Hundreds of those attending the rally were from labor unions, including some 1,200 members of the Laborers' International Union from the New York area. By contrast, no congresspeople were present, and only one--Luis Gutierrez (D-IL)- -sent a letter of support which was read at the rally. [Washington Post 10/17/99; El Diario-La Prensa (NY) 10/17/99, 10/18/99]

A day earlier, Oct. 15, about 1,000 immigrants demonstrated in front of Congress to demand the repeal of some of the harsher anti-immigrant measures of three 1996 laws covering immigration, welfare reform and "counter-terrorism." Participants in the "Fix 96" rally, with the support of several congresspeople, also called for legal residence for Haitians, Hondurans, Salvadorans and Guatemalans. [La Prensa (Honduras) 10/16/99 from EFE]


Palestinian immigrant Hany Kiareldeen was freed at around 10:30pm on Oct. 25 from the Hudson County Correctional Center in New Jersey. He had been held by the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) on secret evidence since Mar. 27, 1998, accused of threatening the life of Attorney General Janet Reno and having links to terrorist groups. Kiareldeen's lawyers said the claims were unfounded and came from their client's ex-wife, with whom he was engaged in a vicious custody battle over visitation rights for their daughter, now 5. Neither Kiareldeen nor his lawyers were allowed to see the classified evidence against him or cross- examine witnesses.

In an Oct. 20 decision, US District Judge William Walls in Newark, NJ, ruled that the use of secret evidence against immigrants is unconstitutional, and ordered Kiareldeen freed immediately. On Oct. 22, a three-judge immigration appeals board upheld that decision, ordering Kiareldeen freed on $1,500 bail but staying his release until midnight on Oct. 25 to give the Justice Department a last chance to decide if it wanted to continue pressing its case.

There was talk that INS Commissioner Doris Meissner would take the extraordinary step of asking Reno to call in the Board of Immigration Appeals decision for further review. However, on the night of Oct. 25, Meissner apparently decided against this. [New York Times 10/26/99; Star Ledger (NJ) 10/27/99] Her decision came after a Washington Post editorial called Kiareldeen's case "about as thorough an indictment of the use of secret evidence as one could ever expect to see." [WP 10/25/99]

On Oct. 26, the Justice Department announced in a terse statement that it has dropped its case against Kiareldeen and abandoned efforts to deport him. At an Oct. 26 news conference at the office of his Newark attorney, Regis Fernandez, Kiareldeen announced that he wants an apology from the government and is "contemplating" a lawsuit. [SL 10/27/99] The Center for Constitutional Rights (CCR) is already representing Kiareldeen is a lawsuit challenging the government's use of secret evidence. That suit was filed in federal court on Aug. 19. [NYT 8/20/99]

Kiareldeen joined US Reps. David Bonior (D-MI) and Tom Campbell (R-CA) at a Washington press conference on Oct. 28 to announce the introduction of the Secret Evidence Repeal Act of 1999, which would repeal the portions of the 1996 anti-terrorism and immigration laws which authorize the use of secret evidence in immigration cases. "There are still 20 others jailed under secret evidence who have been denied due process, who are unable to plead their cases, who have not been charged with any crime, or even been told why they are being held," said Bonior. [BR 10/29/99; NYT 10/27/99; Press Release from Bonior's Office 10/27/99] All of the current secret evidence cases are against Arab or Muslim immigrants. [WP 10/21/99]


On Oct. 13, eight workers at the Holiday Inn Express in downtown Minneapolis were arrested by the INS after being turned over by hotel management. Workers told union leaders that general manager Kevin Koenig had called a staff meeting for that morning, and that as the workers arrived, they were confronted by Koenig and INS officials, who asked them if they had "papers." When they said they did not, they were handcuffed and taken away. Two of the workers were released by Oct. 15 because they have young children; the other six workers were freed on Oct. 19 after Jaye Rykunyk, vice president at large of the Hotel Employees and Restaurant Employees (HERE) International Union Local 17, paid $18,000 bail on their behalf. All eight are awaiting a hearing before an immigration judge.

Union leaders charge that management turned the workers in because of their union activity. Workers at the hotel voted in August to join HERE Local 17 and were scheduled to begin contract negotiations on Nov. 9. All of those arrested were members of the union's negotiating team. INS regional director Curtis Aljets said he believes his agency was used by Holiday Inn Express. "The employer tipped us off," Aljets said. "We weren't aware that there was recruiting activity or a bargaining activity going on. If we had it to do over again, we probably wouldn't do it."

"The most courageous thing workers ever do is take the step of organizing a union," Rykunyk said. "For undocumented workers to do that is an extraordinary, courageous thing to do. We have an obligation to protect them." The INS and the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) have an agreement that the INS won't be used to stop union activity, she said. The union has filed an unfair labor practice charge against the hotel with the NLRB.

A candlelight vigil was held for the workers on Oct. 18, and 200 people attended an Oct. 19 news conference at Holy Rosary Church in south Minneapolis to hear their stories. [Minneapolis Star- Tribune 10/17/99, 10/20/99]


On Oct. 14, federal agents arrested 33 suspected undocumented immigrants working on crews carrying out a $1.2 billion renovation at the Pentagon, in Virginia just across the river from Washington, DC. The raid came just two days before immigrants staged a march in Washington to demand amnesty. Pentagon spokesperson Glenn Flood said as many as 500 construction workers are employed at the site; investigators with the INS and the Defense Protective Service--the Pentagon's police force--examined the documents of about 200 of them as they showed up for work, he said. INS spokesperson Josh Green said 29 of the 33 undocumented workers have been detained at the Pamunkey Regional Jail in Hanover, VA. They face deportation hearings and possible prosecution for possession and use of fraudulent documents, he said. Three other workers were released because they have pending immigration cases, Green said, and a fourth worker, a juvenile, was released to his family.

Flood said contractors submit Social Security numbers and other information about workers to the Pentagon to allow the workers to get special passes allowing them into construction areas. According to Flood, officers contacted the INS last month after noticing that several of the workers were using the same Social Security numbers. Immigrant advocates have charged that the INS asked only Latino employees for proof of work authorization. Those detained are from Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico and Nicaragua. [WP 10/16/99]


On the morning of Oct. 27, about 100 armed INS agents raided the Point Blank Body Armor factory in Oakland Park in Broward County, Florida, and ordered company employees onto the floor before handcuffing 63 workers and hauling them off to Krome detention center. The Miami Herald reported on Oct. 29 that nearly 50 of those arrested turned out to be undocumented, and that most were issued notices to appear before an immigration judge.

Federal agents stood vigil around the company's entrances during the raid, turning away workers and supply deliveries as they loaded company computers and files onto a truck. Employees complained that the agents shouted and were rude. The factory was shut down for 24 hours by the raid. The timing of the raid--just before the Oct. 30 International Association of Chiefs of Police exposition in Charlotte, NC--has triggered suspicion that the tip that sparked the raid came from competing companies in the protection industry.

The agents who took part in the raid at Point Blank Body Armor were wearing bulletproof vests made by the company, the world's largest manufacturer of bulletproof vests with multimillion- dollar contracts with police, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and the US military. The 420-employee company won a $150- million contract with the US Navy in August and had recently announced plans to double its workforce and expand its 90,000- square foot warehouse. [Miami Herald 10/28/99, 10/29/99]


As of Oct. 15, Congolese asylum seeker Patrick Mkhizi had been on hunger strike for three weeks to protest his September transfer to the Sussex County Jail from the Elizabeth Detention Center in New Jersey. Mkhizi has been detained for two years by the INS. Elizabeth Wolstein, Mkhizi's pro bono attorney, charges that her client's transfer appears to be retaliatory, and that it has hampered his access to legal counsel and put him alongside convicted felons. She noted that the INS moved Mkhizi to the remote county jail the day after he was quoted in a Bergen Record article discussing the situation at Elizabeth following the fatal fall of Albanian detainee Vasil Meka [see INB 9/9/99]. (The INS is still investigating whether Meka's fall was an accident or suicide.) Two other detainees were also transferred to county jails after the incident.

Lynn Durko, spokesperson for the Newark district office of the INS, said Mkhizi's transfer was "absolutely not" linked to his comments to the news media. "Transfers are done for the security and safety of those in the facility," said Durko.

On Oct. 10 some 50 protesters gathered under a highway overpass on Route 1/9 near Newark International Airport in New Jersey to demand an end to the detention of asylum seekers. They then marched a mile and a half through the rain to Elizabeth Detention Center. The march was organized by Interfaith Refugee Action Team of Elizabeth (IRATE), to show solidarity with the detainees and draw attention to their plight. [NJ Star Ledger 10/11/99]

Dr. Allen Keller, director of the Bellevue-New York University Program for Survivors of Torture and an expert witness in Mkhizi's case, criticized the INS for not telling jail administrators that Mkhizi had no criminal record. Durko responded: "The warden has no need to know that anyone is an asylum seeker. We use their bed space, we don't discuss the cases." [Bergen Record 10/16/99]


INS Publishes "QUICK GUIDE TO PUBLIC CHARGE" Flyer for Immigrant Communities

In response to requests from immigrant communities following release of the new public charge rules last May, the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) has summarized the rules in a new two-page flyer. Published on INS letterhead, the flyer is helpful for community education because it combines the usefulness of a short summary in plain language, with the enhanced credibility of a document published by INS instead of by a non-governmental organization. The flyer, "A Quick Guide to 'Public Charge' And Receipt of Public Benefits" tells immigrants they will not be considered a "public charge" for using a wide range of health care benefits, food programs, and other programs. It emphasizes that immigrants applying for naturalization cannot be turned down for past or current receipt of any public benefit. It also clarifies that receipt of benefits does not prevent citizens and lawful permanent residents (LPRs) from sponsoring relatives although they cannot count the income from benefits toward the minimum income requirement.

Advocates plan a wide distribution of the flyer for educating immigrant communities, the immigration bar, social service providers, benefits agency personnel, and local INS staff. The flyers can be distributed at community events and reproduced in ethnic newspapers. Immigrants and immigration lawyers can take the flyer with them to INS and State Department interviews to help ensure that adjudicators are informed about the new rules.

The flyer is also available on the INS website, at; then go to summaries/Public.htm. So far, it is available only in English, but the Service plans translations into Spanish, Chinese, Korean, Vietnamese, and Thai.

The INS web site also continues to post the longer, more detailed summaries they previously published in the form of a fact sheet and a question-and-answer memo in English and Spanish (go to presinfo4.htm#PublicCharge), as well as the official guidance itself and proposed rule.

BACKGROUND (from NILC Benefits Update 99-4)

By law, most noncitizens who want to get a green card, otherwise immigrate to the U.S., enter the U.S. temporarily, or re-enter after lengthy travel abroad must show that they are not likely to become a public charge. The policy issued on May 25, 1999 clarifies and standardizes the meaning of this requirement, which had become so confusing that immigrants have avoided seeking basic health care and other needed services because of fear that it would lead to denial of a green card or immigrant visa. Immigrants and their families should now be better able to assess the potential immigration consequences of participating in government programs and understand how their applications will be handled when they go to a State Department consulate or to the INS.

The climate of uncertainty created by the government's lack of a clear standard had become a major barrier to immigrant families' participation in programs that protect public health and welfare. For example, immigrant parents were afraid to enroll immigrant or citizen children in the new state Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) enacted in 1997 to protect the health of children in working families. Unfortunately, due to the lack of a clear government standard, these immigrant concerns had a basis in fact. In recent years, for example, some immigrants were prevented from getting a green card because of their lawful participation in widely available health care programs such as Medicaid.

The new standard clarifies that these practices are illegal. The guidance provides that the only government programs that can have a negative effect on immigration status are cash welfare for income maintenance and long-term institutional care at government expense. It also clarifies the circumstances under which receipt of those programs can become a factor in immigration determinations. For example, permanent residents who travel abroad for less than six months generally should not be questioned about public charge. And, public charge does not affect immigrants who want to become citizens.
The Administration materials explaining the new policy include the following. Most of these materials are available on the web, either directly from NILC's site ( or from sites to which web visitors can link from

1. A proposed regulation (Notice of Proposed Rulemaking), "Inadmissibility and Deportability on Public Charge Grounds," issued by the Department of Justice, 64 Fed. Reg. 28676-28688 (May 26, 1999.

2. An INS "Field Guidance on Deportability and Inadmissibility on Public Charge Grounds," 64 Fed. Reg. 28689-28693 (May 26, 1999).

3. A Department of State cable to U.S. consulates, "INA 212(a)(4) Public Charge: Policy Guidance," effective Tuesday, May 25.

4. Accompanying materials, such as an INS fact sheet and answers to questions (in both English and Spanish).

5. Field correspondence from the federal agencies administering benefits the Department of Health and Human Services, Department of Agriculture, and Social Security Administration to state directors of Medicaid, Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), Food Stamps, the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC), and other agencies.

The proposed regulation had a 60-day comment period and will not be effective until final regulations are promulgated. However, the INS field guidance and the State Department cable to consuls were effective as of May 26, 1999. The INS question-and-answer piece promises that immigrants who rely on the current guidance "will not suffer harsher immigration consequences based on that reliance."

** Highlights of the Guidance

-- Using Medicaid, the state Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP), or other health services will not affect immigration status, unless Medicaid is used for long-term institutional care. Using food stamps, WIC, public housing, or other programs that do not provide cash income will not affect immigration status. Use of cash income benefits by family members of an immigrant will not affect immigration status unless the benefits provide sole support for the family. Using cash income benefits like Supplemental Security Income (SSI), TANF, or general assistance might affect immigration status, depending on the immigrant's situation.

For a summary of the guidance and the proposed regulations, see NILC Benefits Update 99-4 (May 25, 1999).



National Immigration Law Center Los Angeles Office: 213-639-3900 (general calls and requests for materials) Washington, D.C. Office: 202-216-0261(calls regarding policy issues)

India to Introduce Internet Trading

© Reuters

Sep 24 1999: Preparations are underway in India for the establishment of Internet-based stock trading, which is set to begin early next year.
Opinion is divided as to when exactly Net trading will be fully operational.

India's Infrastructure Leasing and Financial Services expects online trading to begin in April 2000, while the Securities and Exchange Board of India, SEBI says that Net based stock trading will be operation
by the end of this year.

As is to be expected, initial trading volumes are predicted to be low. In addition to the more general barriers that face the Internet industry, broker start-up costs, security concerns, and the lack of tech-savvy investors is expected to impede the growth of Net trading.

Schoolnet India, a subsidiary of India's Infrastructure Leasing and Financial Services, predicts that just 10 to 15 percent of India's brokers
will become involved in online trading initially. It estimates that the set-up cost per broker will be in the region of USD575,000, if security and fallback provisions are included.

The India government is expected to introduce an ecommerce bill in the next session of the national parliament, which will legislate for digital signatures, certificates, evidencing and access authentication.

Night Has His Day

Night Has His Day

© India Today

Little known in his home country, this India-born director is making waves in Hollywood. His third film,
The Sixth Sense, is poised to cross the $200 million mark in the US.

By Anupama Chopra with Arthur J Pais

Manoj "Night" Shyamalan's class XII picture in his school yearbook shows him on the cover of the Time magazine with the heading: Best Director. It is a trick photograph he engineered when he graduated from the Episcopal Academy in Philadelphia. At 29, Shyamalan is almost there.

The Sixth Sense, Shyamalan's third film, just broke Hollywood's Labour Day weekend record by raking in an estimated $28.5 million (Rs 122.5 crore) over four days. The earlier highest was $17.2 million by The Fugitive. Currently in 2,775 venues across the US, The Sixth Sense has grossed $175.5 million and looks set to cross the $200 million mark. The film, about the relationship between an eight-year-old boy who sees ghosts and a child psychologist, has topped the box-office charts for five straight weeks.

Shyamalan had a sixth sense that something like this might happen. Three years ago, when he was editing his second film, Wide Awake, he said to his editor Andrew Mondshein, "You know, I'm going to write a screenplay called The Sixth Sense. Bruce Willis is going to star in it." Mondshein had replied, "Yeah, sure." But Shyamalan made his premonition come true. In September 1997, Shyamalan's chilling story -- he describes it as Ordinary People meets The Exorcist -- sold to Disney for $3 million ($2.5 million for the script and $500,000 for directing). "It was absolutely historic, unprecedented," Shyamalan says, "and they asked for no rewrites." They also agreed to let him shoot the film in Philadelphia. Bruce Willis, best known for testosterone dramas like Armageddon and the Die Hard series, not only signed on but also slashed his $20 million fees so the film could come in at a more reasonable $40 million budget. "There have only been three scripts," Willis says, "that I have ever read in my career that I immediately knew I wanted to do and The Sixth Sense was one of them. It has a real balance of dark and light moments, of normal and paranormal events in these characters' lives."

Naturally, everyone is asking who's that guy? Not many people know. Despite two low-budget art-house feature films, the desi contingent in Hollywood had never heard of Shyamalan. Before The Sixth Sense shook up the box-office, film director Shekhar Kapur hadn't heard the name. Says filmmaker Deepa Mehta: "Even now, there isn't a great awareness that he's Indian."

Shyamalan is an Indian-born American. "Night" is an anglicised version of Nelliyattu, his original (Keralite) middle name, which proved to be too much of a tongue-twister in America. His cardiologist father Dr N. C. Shyamalan and gynaecologist mother Dr Jayalakshmi migrated from Pondicherry to the US when Manoj was eight weeks old. He grew up in Philadelphia, attending private Catholic schools. When he was eight years old, Shyamalan picked up his father's Bell & Howell 8-mm camera and started making movies. "He would call all the neighbourhood kids into the backyard and create stories," his mother recalls. "I used to put out sandwiches and coke." "The plots," his father says, "would have one kid playing the richest man in India. Even then he was telling ghost stories."

Shyamalan's upbringing has been a pot-pourri of Indian and Yankee. He visited India once every two years to see his relatives. He doesn't speak Malayalam but understands it. His values, his mother says, "are Indian". At 16, Shyamalan completed his 45th short film. At 17, he stood before his parents, surrounded by pictures of the other 12 doctors in the family and announced that despite getting admission to several prestigious medical schools, he wanted to be a filmmaker. "We were scared," says Jayalakshmi, "because it's a new line and we couldn't help him in any way. But he's a very focused and strong-headed boy. He's hard working and determined. I knew he would do something. But we never imagined this. He's really taken off. We feel like we're dreaming."

This dream is going to last. After Sense, Shyamalan is being aggressively courted by the major studios. He continues to live in Philadelphia, in what his aunt Dayajayaram describes as, "a very nice house with a swimming pool and tennis court" with his wife Bhavna and their three-year-old daughter Saleka. Bhavna, who is currently doing her doctorate in psychology is expecting again. For the Shyamalans, bigger things are to come.

Hindi Films Reaching Large Audience Here

Pictures From Home Light Up the Nights
Cinemas a Social Center for Expatriates

By Philip P. Pan
Washington Post Staff Writer
Wednesday, September 15, 1999; Page A01

The last time a movie starring Shahrukh Khan opened at Loehmann's Plaza, the line for tickets stretched across the Falls Church strip mall, hundreds of fans couldn't get seats and audiences packed the theater for weeks. So, just to be safe, Monika Khatri and her husband arrived early on a recent Saturday for the newest film featuring India's number one star.

The problem was that everyone else did, too. Sikh men wearing turbans waited in line behind Sri Lankan teenagers in Nike caps. Indian mothers in saris tried to control restless children as adolescent Afghan girls traded gossip by the box office. And behind them, Indian folk music floated out of cars searching the jammed lot for parking spaces.

"These movies bring you closer to home, because we are all so far away," said Khatri, 49, a Fairfax Station computer analyst from New Delhi, explaining why the $8-a-ticket, three-hour Hindi films are worth the trouble. "They're good entertainment, and they help you keep in touch with the culture."

Theaters that once showed movies in Spanish, Chinese and Greek
disappeared from the Washington area long ago. But two local cinemas that play Hindi films seven nights a week are thriving -- and have become lively gathering places for the region's growing community of immigrants from South Asia.

The success of Loehmann's Twin Cinemas and Laurel Town Center
Theaters -- and theaters like them in more than 30 other U.S. cities -- can be traced to remarkably devoted fans who see the Indian film world as a kitschy alternative to Hollywood. Affectionately nicknamed Bollywood, the Bombay movie industry churns out as many as 800 films a year, most of them lavish musicals featuring attractive stars and far-fetched plots.

Consider "Baadshah," the new comedy-action film in which the leading man plays a singing, dancing, sharpshooting private eye who manages to save a government minister from assassination.

Or watch "Taal," which has been playing to large crowds for weeks. It
begins as a classic star-crossed romance involving a billionaire's son and a young woman from a rural village -- but then the woman becomes an international rock star.

Indian love stories featuring traditional folk songs re-mixed with Western rhythms and elaborately choreographed dance sequences do particularly well in the United States. On the weekend it opened, "Taal" earned more per screen than any Hollywood film and ranked 20th on Variety's box office list. And that's without subtitles.

Invariably set in exotic locales full of glamorous characters in beautiful
costumes, Bollywood movies are popular in India because they offer
escapist fantasies for a vast, rural underclass. But in the United States, the films play to a completely different audience -- well-educated professionals who already have "escaped."

"Here, it's nostalgia, a link to home," said Karan Capoor, 31, a management consultant who lives in Arlington. "Whether we ever go back to India is immaterial. In a certain way, particularly for those of us who grew up in India, it's part of who we are."

Capoor said it's easier for the educated to enjoy a Bollywood film here than in India. "There's a bit of a snob factor," he said. "To be honest, if I was living in Calcutta, I wouldn't be caught dead going to 'Baadshah.' "

More people from India and Pakistan settled in the Washington area this decade than from anywhere else in Asia, and community leaders say South Asians have emerged as one of the largest ethnic groups in the region, their numbers approaching 100,000.

But immigrants from India and Pakistan aren't the only ones lining up at Loehmann's and Laurel. Visit on a Friday night, and you'll find cliques of their teenage children, who were born and raised in the United States and embrace India's pop culture as fervently as they do America's.

The crowds are also full of immigrants from other parts of the world,
including Afghanistan, Iran, the Middle East, Africa and the Caribbean,
people who grew up watching Hindi films though they may not speak the language.

"It's so much fun," said moviegoer Asha Farah, 33, of Vienna, a Somali
nurse who came here nine years ago after growing up in Saudi Arabia.
"When we were little, we would stay up all night and watch Indian movies, so it reminds you of when you were young."

Some immigrants take their U.S.-born children to the movies to reinforce cultural values. The films often emphasize respect for elders and the benefits of arranged marriages. And there are almost no sex scenes: In "Taal," when two characters shared a bottle of Coke, it amounted to heavy petting.

"The movies have a tremendous influence on my kids," said Rekha Uppal, 33, a mother of two in Potomac. "We like it because it keeps them in touch with the culture. They learn the language, and they have fun."

The theaters are also among the few public places where the South Asian community comes together. Moviegoers often make a social event of an outing and count on bumping into friends. Loehmann's has shown free presentations of international cricket matches and often helps raise money for community causes. Laurel serves samosas and tea with the popcorn and Milk Duds.

"It's a very homey atmosphere," said Hamza Javed, 21, of Centreville, a Pakistani tech worker who immigrated four years ago. "It's the only fun I have. After 90 or 100 hours of work, it's a relief to relax and see all the same people."

Hindi films first began playing in the Washington area in the late 1960s in an auditorium at Catholic University. Back then, the audience was composed almost entirely of students, the first wave of Indian immigrants to the United States after Congress relaxed immigration laws in 1965.

As the community grew, the movies moved to Silver Spring, then Arlington and then to the Takoma Theater near the District line. Radio station WHFS (99.1 FM) even started playing Indian music.

"The market wasn't big enough for weeknights, just weekends," recalled Punita Bhatt, an English professor at the University of the District of Columbia and one of those early Indian students at Catholic. "An entire generation of Indians remember Takoma as the equivalent of a community center. . . . It was nice, but it didn't last long."

In 1981, the theater closed, done in by videotapes and cable. Other local theaters that featured foreign-language films -- Spanish movies at the Ontario in Adams-Morgan and the Colony on Georgia Avenue, and Chinese movies at the American Theater in L'Enfant Plaza -- disappeared, too.

But a decade later, the Hindi theaters returned. Vijay Narula, 35, the
president of a local tech firm who runs the two theaters now, said he often rents them out for screenings of Afghani, Senegalese or Iranian films, as well as movies in Bengali, Tamil, Telugu and other Indian languages.

In part, the comeback of Hindi cinema can be attributed to its younger fans, many of whom have paid up to $100 to watch their favorite stars perform at the Patriot Center this Saturday in one of a series of Indian concerts held every year. These teens are devotees of Salman Khan as much as Leonardo diCaprio, and their embrace of Bollywood provides a window into the acculturation of a generation.

Sachin Gupta, 17, of Mitchellville, said he avoided Indian culture for years, in part because he wanted to fit in. But this summer, he met other young Indian Americans at a few parties.

"My dad used to try to explain the movies to me, but I always thought it was dumb," he said. "Now, I'm learning about it and getting all into it." He can't speak Hindi but gets his friends to translate.

Inevitably, the second generation has a different take on Indian culture. It embraces the music and dance but struggles at times with the values. Teenage boys and girls sometimes meet at the theaters secretly, to avoid the anti-dating disapproval of more traditional parents.

Anuj Mehta, 26, a software engineer, and Raakhi Chohda, 25, a personnel manager, often went on dates to Loehmann's before they got engaged.

"But we never went on weekends," Chohda said. "Our parents didn't mind, but we didn't want their friends to gossip about us."

© Copyright 1999 The Washington Post Company

The Rise of Silicon Valley Role Model

© Rediff in the News
by Sonia Chopra

With a salary and stock options worth $ 3.9 million, Lata Krishnan last year became the highest-compensated woman executive among the largest publicly traded companies in Silicon Valley.

Known for her reticent nature, Krishnan makes some time for interviews these days, mainly because she feels the story of her success could be a model to young women.

Krishnan, 38, vice-president and cofounder of SMART Modular Technologies, began her journey to success in flight from Africa.

She was born in Kerala, moved to Kenya, came back to Jamshedpur briefly, and lived in London before finally settling down in California.

"In a sense I have lived a fairly nomadic life. And if I had to point to one aspect of my life that has given it direction, focus and independence, it is the upbringing that my parents have given us. They encouraged us to try new things, gave us choices and challenged us," she said.

Krishnan's father Gopal, now a retired bank official living in India with his wife Geeta, gave his daughter and son a very well-rounded education, as they were transferred all over the world.

While in London, in the early 1980s, Krishnan earned a bachelor's degree in economics from the London School of Economics. She worked for five years as an accountant with the London-based firms of Arthur
Anderson and Hill Vellacott.

In 1986, with her father's encouragement, she set out "to explore the United States." Soon, a headhunter's outfit got her a job with Montgomery Securities. Fate intervened when Krishnan ran into Ajay Shah, an engineer who was working at that time with Advanced
Micro Devices. Shah and Krishnan had met earlier in London, when he went to visit his family there.

They dated and in a few months they were married. The enterprising couple were never at a loss for business plans. Krishnan began to form a small semi-conductor export business, which never took off the ground because she liked her husband's idea better.

Shah, a mechanical engineer, was working on memory modules which his company Samsung Semiconductors did not seem too interested in.

However, the couple saw potential in the product. More importantly, they believed in each other and strongly trusted their instinct. They wrote up a business plan. But most venture capitalists turned them away.

"A business plan about memory modules wasn't sexy enough. And we were only looking for $ 500,000. That didn't seem like too much money to them." Krishnan said.

So the couple found their family friend Mukesh Patel eager to join and the determined trio raised about $ 100,000 mostly from their friends; they put in some of their savings, too.

And the rest, as they say is history. SMART, an acronym for Surface Mount and Reflow Technology, was created a decade ago. The company turned the seemingly unexciting, low-margin business of making memory modules, cards for computers and other devices into a
dazzling profitable venture.

The company builds its memory modules and cards by mounting standard memory chips on miniaturized circuit boards. It does the design, manufacturing and testing. Among the highest compensated three executives of the biggest publicly traded companies in the valley, the partners now count among their clients Compaq, Apple, IBM, Hewlett-Packard, Cisco Systems and 3Com.

"We became profitable in the second month of operation. Our profits have grown steadily ever since," Krishnan said.

The company's headquarters is based in Fremont. They have also opened a design center in Bangalore and have manufacturing centers in Puerto Rico, Scotland and Malaysia.

At SMART, Shah, Krishnan and Patel have divided the responsibilities and duties. Shah focuses on sales and marketing. Patel takes care of the technical and Krishnan tends to the financial, administrative and human resources aspects of the business.

Krishnan, a chartered accountant by training, is a tough chief financial officer. She makes sure they watch their expenses. As an example they always buy used furniture for the company.

The stringent control has paid off. From a shoestring budget, the company has grown into a multi-million dollar publicly traded outfit ranked by Fortune magazine as one of the 50 fastest growing technology companies in Silicon Valley.

Analysts say because the company does not even own the actual chip, it is less exposed to swings in the chip market than some of its competitors. Fueling the rapid growth of SMART Modular Technologies is an enormous increase in demand for memory as computers
and other electronic equipment has become speedier and more sophisticated.

In a tough market, the company managed to post increases in both sales and profits. Net sales in fiscal 1998 reached $ 714.65 million, up from $ 163.8 million in fiscal 1994. Net income grew from $ 6.2 million to $ 51.48 during the same period.

"Indian entrepreneurs have been very successful here and it should be an important part of the strategy to give back to the community. There are so many ways of doing that," Krishnan said.

The company contributes to schools in all its locations. In Fremont, it has donated a computer lab to the odules wasn't sexy.

Irvington high school. Shah and Krishnan also have provided scholarships for college students. Krishnan is on the board of the San Jose Tech Museum of Innovation and the Children's Discovery Museum. She is a fellow of the Silicon Valley Chapter of the American Leadership Forum, and on the advisory board of Narika, a Berkeley-based support group for battered women.

"Our company has been profitable," she says, brushing aside discussions of her remuneration. "That is meaningless if your company doesn't operate well. We have integrity, we are innovative, creative, and that counts."

Krishnan, the angel investor, is already a mentor to many. It is a role she enjoys. "I think women are talented, versatile, resourceful and can offer a lot to business. I want to see more women entrepreneurs and I
hope I inspire people." she said.

"I used to keep a low profile. I wanted no visibility, but I changed my mind because I thought if hearing about me can inspire young people and make them create new paths in the mainstream, all the better," she said.

Krishnan, who retains her maiden name, is an example for many career women. Her professional achievements have won her many accolades. A South Bay-based support network, the Indian Business and Professional Women, has invited her several times as a featured
speaker and she actively participates as an advisor, mentor and as a trustee.

"She has always been there for us," said Monica Kumar, IBPW's president. "She is a role model for our members."

Away from the fast track, Krishnan's greatest joy are her children, who she wants to keep out of the press. She faces the same struggle of juggling schedules like millions of 1990s mothers. "It is difficult to manage a career and children. I try every day to balance them
both. But my first priority are my children If there is a conflict between a meeting and an event that I have to go to with my children I will always pick them first," she said.

Krishnan loves to work with children too. She won the Citizen of the Year award from the Rotary Club of Warm Springs for her charitable work. "Children can be molded into good, caring people. They lose their way for a variety of reasons, broken homes, financial instability, etc. If I can help one child have a better future, it is meaningful." she said.

"This is what I want to be remembered for. These are more notable than the sales and stock figures."

Employment Visas Priority Dates Current

July 15, 1999. A real shocker in the Employment categories; all priority dates are "CURRENT" (no backlogs) with the exception of the unskilled workers category which advanced nine weeks to March 8, 1993.
For persons born in India and the PRC (mainland China), the news is nothing short of unbelievable! Used to priority dates ranging back to 1995 and 1996, suddenly the backlogs have melted away like a block of ice on a hot summer's day. Persons from India and China whose priority dates will be current on August 1 should avoid the rush to submit their applications for adjustment of status as soon as possible.
For more information, contact Law Office of Aparna Dave, 301-585-5669 or thier web site
INS recording on immigrant visa cut-off dates can be heard by dialing 202-663-1541.

The Tiffinwallas of Mumbai

The Mumbai Tiffinwallas are international figures now thanks to Forbes Global. The Forbes story details the efficiency which with they deliver the Tiffins of their customers. Around 5000 Tiffinwallas deliver 1,75,000 lunches everyday & take the empty tiffin back. They make One Mistake in 2 months. This means there is one Error on every 16million transactions (or 8 million deliveries of lunches). This is thus a 6 Sigma performance (a term used in quality assurance if the percentage of
correctness is 99.999999 - 6 nines or more) the performance which has made companies like Motorola world famous for their Quality.

Following is the complete story

Mumbai's "tiffinwallahs" have achieved a level of service to which Western businesses can only aspire. "Efficient organization" is not the first thought that comes to mind in India, but when the profit motive is given free rein, anything is possible. To appreciate Indian efficiency at its best, watch the tiffinwallahs at work. These are the men who deliver 175,000 lunches (or "tiffin") each day to offices and schools throughout Mumbai (formerly Bombay), the business capital of India. Lunch is in a tin container consisting of a number of bowls, each containing a separate dish, held together in a frame. The meals are prepared in the homes of the people who commute into Mumbai each morning and delivered in their own tiffin carriers.

After lunch, the process is reversed. And what a process it is complexity, the 5,000 tiffinwallahs make a mistake only about once every two months, according to Ragunath Medge, 42, president of the Mumbai Tiffinmen's Association. That's one error in every 8 million deliveries, or 16 million if you include the return trip. "If we made 10 mistakes a month, no one would use our service," says the craggily handsome Medge. How do they do it? The meals are picked up from commuters' homes in suburbs around central Mumbai long after the commuters have left for work, delivered to them on time, then picked up and delivered home before the commuters return. Each tiffin carrier has, painted on its top, a number of symbols which identify where the carrier was picked up, the originating and destination stations and the address to which it is to be delivered. After the tiffin carriers are picked up, they are taken to the nearest railway station, where they are sorted according to the destination station. Between 10:15 a.m. and 10:45 a.m. they are loaded in crates onto the baggage cars of trains.

At the destination station they are unloaded by other tiffinwallas and resorted, this time according to street address and floor. The 100 kilogram crates of carriers, carried on tiffinwallahs' heads, hand-wagons and cycles are delivered at 12:30 p.m., picked up at 1:30 p.m., and returned when they came. The charge for this extraordinary service is just 150 rupees ($3.33) per month, enough for the tiffinwallahs, who are mostly self-employed, to make a good living. After paying Rs. 60 per crate and Rs. 120 per man per month to the Western Railway for transport, the average tiffinwallah clears about Rs. 3,250. Of that sum, Rs. 10 goes to the Tiffinmen's Association. After minimal expenses, the rest of the Rs. 50,000 a month that the Association collects go to a charitable trust that feeds the poor. Superb service and charity too. Can anyone ask for more?

Letter to the Ambassador on Animal Abuse in India

A letter has been sent by various Representatives on Capitol Hill to Indian Ambassador His Excellency Naresh Chandra regarding a horrible case of elephant abuse in India.

Below are two letters. The first is from Rep. Sam Farr (D-CA) to other members of Congress. The second is from members of Congress to the Ambassador.

Letter one (from Rep. Farr to other members of Congress):

Dear Colleague:

A dreadful case of animal torture is occurring in India right now. This indefensible cruelty has been thoroughly documented by the India Project for Animals and Nature (IPAN). Please help me end this atrocity by joining me in asking the Ambassador to India to intervene.

My requests to His Excellency Naresh Chandra, the Ambassador of India, to discuss the urgent case of a captive elephant at the Mudumalai Elephant Camp in India are being ignored. I therefore seek your partnership in urging the Ambassador to address this case and to use his authority to intervene.

I have provided the ambassador with a video which documents the abhorrent abuse and neglect the elephant has endured for 8 months. In July 1998 the Tamil Nadu State Forest Department captured a crop-raiding elephant in South India. This Makhna (tuskless male) sustained severe injuries in the process of being captured and dragged to the Elephant Camp. He has since been routinely beaten for "training purposes."

To train elephants for tourist rides, young elephants are beaten until they "sleep" (lie down in submission). However, this elephant had been dragged for 8 days by chains which were tied like a tourniquet around his lower legs. This shackling severed the tendons in the elephant's legs, rendering him incapable of lying down as his new "trainers" beat him for 45 minutes on his wounds. In the video I provided for Ambassador Chandra the Makhna screams in agony as he hopelessly attempts to lie down for the trainers.

The unspeakable abuse of this animal is a tragedy that should not be ignored. It has even prompted veterinarian Dr. Michael Fox, Chief Consultant of the India Project for Animals and Nature (IPAN), to proclaim it the worst case of animal abuse he has ever seen. Today the Makhna is extremely malnourished and it is
critical that he be released immediately so that his wounds may be treated. A suitable sanctuary and support is available for the Makhna upon his release.

Please sign the attached letter to Ambassador Chandra expressing our disappointment in his slow action and our request that this animal be released immediately.

Letter two (to Ambassador.):

Ambassador Naresh Chandra
Ambassador E. and P.
Embassy of India
2107 Massachusetts Avenue, NW
Washington, D.C. 20008

Dear Ambassador Chandra:

We are writing to request your immediate attention to the case of the Makhna at the Mudumalai Elephant Camp.

Dr. Michael Fox and Rep. Farr have provided you with a video which documents the abhorrent abuse and neglect this elephant has endured for 8 months. In July 1998 the Tamil Nadu State Forest Department captured a crop-raiding elephant in South India. This Makhna (tuskless male) sustained severe injuries in the process of being captured and dragged to the Elephant Camp.

Soon after his arrival at the Elephant Camp a Forest Department staffer appealed to the locally based India Project for Animals and Nature (IPAN) for help saving the Makhna. IPAN's Director Deanna Krantz then approached the Wildlife Warden at the Elephant Camp who kindly offered to let IPAN provide food, medicines and proper veterinary for the Makhna. However, on December 25, 1998 the Warden forbid IPAN from providing further care. Since then the Makhna's condition has rapidly deteriorated. This combination of beatings, neglect and confinement to a kraal in which the elephant is unable to walk has resulted in one of the worst cases of animal cruelty ever documented.

The Makhna is extremely malnourished and it is critical that he be released immediately so that his wounds may be treated. A suitable sanctuary and support is available for the Makhna upon his release. Please urge Chief Minister Prabhu (Tel: 011-91-11-436-1748) to intervene without further delay and to host a meeting with all concerned at the Elephant Camp, including Deanna Krantz, Director of IPAN (Tel: 0423-56-158).

Please contact us forthwith to inform us of your progress on this issue.


Member of Congress

NASA Names Premier X-Ray Observatory After Indian-American Scientist


NASA's Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility has been renamed the Chandra X-ray Observatory in honor of the late Indian-American Nobel laureate, Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar. The telescope is scheduled to be launched no earlier than April 8, 1999 aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia mission STS-93, commanded by astronaut Eileen Collins.

Chandrasekhar, known to the world as Chandra, which means "moon" or "luminous" in Sanskrit, was a popular entry in a recent NASA contest to name the spacecraft. The contest drew more than six thousand entries from fifty states and sixty-one countries. The co-winners were a tenth grade student in Laclede, Idaho, and a high school teacher in Camarillo, CA.

The Chandra X-ray Observatory Center (CXC), operated by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, will control science and flight operations of the Chandra X-ray Observatory for NASA from Cambridge, Mass.

"Chandra is a highly appropriate name," said Harvey Tananbaum, Director of the CXC. "Throughout his life Chandra worked tirelessly and with great precision to further our understanding of the universe. These same qualities characterize the many individuals who have devoted much of their careers to building this premier x-ray observatory."

"Chandra probably thought longer and deeper about our universe than anyone since Einstein," said Martin Rees, Great Britain's Astronomer Royal.

"Chandrasekhar made fundamental contributions to the theory of black holes and other phenomena that the Chandra X-ray Observatory will study. His life and work exemplify the excellence that we can hope to achieve with this great observatory," said NASA Administrator Dan Goldin.

Widely regarded as one of the foremost astrophysicists of the 20th century, Chandrasekhar won the Nobel Prize in 1983 for his theoretical studies of physical processes important to the structure and evolution of stars. He and his wife immigrated from India to the U.S. in 1935. Chandrasekhar served on the faculty of the University of Chicago until his death in 1995.

The Chandra X-ray Observatory will help astronomers worldwide better understand the structure and evolution of the universe by studying powerful sources of X rays such as exploding stars, matter falling into black holes and other exotic celestial objects. X-radiation is an invisible form of light produced by multimillion degree gas. Chandra will provide x-ray images that are fifty times more detailed than previous missions. At more than 45 feet in length and weighing more than five tons, it will be one of the largest objects ever placed in Earth orbit by the Space Shuttle.

Tyrel Johnson, a student at Priest River Lamanna High School in Priest River, Idaho, and Jatila van der Veen, a physics and astronomy teacher at Adolfo Camarillo High School in Camarillo, California, who submitted the winning name and essays, will receive a trip to the Kennedy Space Center in Florida to view the launch of the Chandra X-ray Observatory, a prize donated by TRW.

Members of the contest's selection committee were Timothy Hannemann, executive vice president and general manager, TRW Space & Electronics Group; the late CNN correspondent John Holliman; former Secretary of the Air Force Sheila Widnall, professor of aeronautics at MIT; Charles Petit, senior writer for U.S. News & World Report; Sidney Wolff, Director, National Optical Astronomy Observatories; Martin Weisskopf, Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility project scientist, Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL.; and Harvey Tananbaum, director of the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility Science Center, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Cambridge, MA.

The Chandra X-ray Observatory program is managed by the Marshall Center for the Office of Space Science, NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC. TRW Space and Electronics Group, Redondo Beach, CA, is NASA's prime contractor for the observatory. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory controls science and flight operations of the observatory for NASA from Cambridge, MA.

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EDITORS NOTE: Further information on NASA's Chandra Observatory is available on the internet at and ,

For information about S. Chandrasekhar, or comments from his Chicago colleagues, including those who will use the Chandra X-ray Observatory, contact Steve Koppes, University of Chicago, 773/702-8366, or via email at .

The NASA Video File normally airs at noon, 3:00, 6:00, 9:00 p.m. and midnight Eastern time. NASA Television is available on GE-2, transponder 9C at 85 degrees West longitude, with vertical polarization. Frequency is on 3880.0 megahertz, with audio on 6.8 megahertz.

New Internet Policy Announced in India
(from India Economic News)

On November 6, 1998, the Government of India announced detailed policy guidelines pertaining to privatization of internet services in the country. The Department of Telecommunications (DoT) signed four license agreements with three companies including Mahanagar Telephone Nigam Limited (MTNL) on the same day.

The government, under the direct initiative of Prime Minister A. B. Vajpayee, has pushed hard to apidly increase information technology (IT) access throughout the country through the internet. While inaugurating IT.Com 98 in Bangalore, an information technology exhibition and conference on 1 November 1998, the Prime Minister had said that the aim of the internet policy is to encourage the fast-est possible proliferation of internet services throughout India at an affordable price. In addition, the internet license policy was to be customer and investor friendly. He had set a deadline of 7 November for DoT to issue the li-censes.

The highlights of the present policy are:

Private Internet Service Providers (ISPs) will be allowed to enter the internet service market which was exclusively reserved for Videsh Sanchar Nigam Limited (VSNL) and Department of Telecommunications until now.

Foreign equity up to 49% has been permitted.

An applicant company can get any number of licenses and there will be no limit on number of licenses granted in a particular area. ISPs will be required to set up their node/server within the geographical limits of the service area.

License holders have to start the services within 18 months of signing the agreement.

Separate licenses will be granted for each service area. Applicants will be required to submit separate application for each service area. The country has been divided into separate service areas in three categories for this purpose as follows:

Category A - all India basis

Category B - consists of 20 territorial telecom circles; the four major metros, i.e., Mumbai, New Delhi, Calcutta and Chennai; and other major cities of Ahmedabad, Bangalore, Hyderabad and Pune.

Category C - any secondary switching area of DoT will form a separate service area.

The companies should provide bank guarantees of Rs.20 million (about USD 0.47 million) for category A service area, Rs.2 million (about USD 47,000) for category B service area and Rs.0.30 million (about USD 7,000) for category C service area.

The license will be valid for a period of fifteen years which can be extended by another five years on request of the licensee.

The policy virtually does away with the license fee. The ISPs will pay no license fee for the first five years and a token fee of Rs.1 (about 2 cents) thereafter.

Private ISPs can obtain transmission links on lease from DoT, licensed basic service operators, Railways, State Electricity Boards, National Power Grid Corporation etc. They may also establish their own transmission links provided they are not available from authorized sources and subject to the permission of Telecom Authority.

International connectivity will be through gateways of DoT, Videsh Sanchar Nigam Limited (VSNL) or authorized public/government organizations. Private ISPs have been allowed to establish their own gateways after obtaining security clearances from an inter-ministerial body.

ISPs will be free to fix their own tariffs. The tariff will be left open to be determined by the market. However, the Telecom Regulatory Authority of India can review and fix a tariff at any time during the validity of the license which will be binding on the licensee.

Over 150 companies are expected to apply for ISP license, out of which at least 50 will be national level players. These include CMC, HCL, Global Telesystems, Satyam Computers, Wipro, Bharti-British Telecom Internet Limited, Sterling Group, RPG, Sprint, Birla Group and most of the other existing e-mail providers and VSAT companies. After the announcement of the policy, three companies signed the license agreement with DoT for providing internet services on the first day itself. The companies are: Mahanagar Telephone Nigam Limited (for Delhi and Mumbai), Surewin Consultants (for Ghaziabad and Noida) and Ortel Communications (for Cuttack and Bhubaneshwar).

India has an installed base of 2 million computers and barely 150,000 internet connections now. With the announcement of this policy, industry sources expect the demand for PCs as well as internet connections to go up significantly.

Bangladeshis are the Happiest People in the World

Would you believe it, Bangladesh is the happiest nation in the world! The United States, on the other hand, is a sad story: it ranks only 46th in the World Happiness Survey.

That's way behind India, the fifth happiest place in the world, and others including Ghana and Latvia,Croatia and Estonia. Research led by London School of Economics professors into the link between personal spending power and the perceived quality of life has conclusively proved that money can buy everything but happiness.

The study revealed that people in Bangladesh, one of the poorest countries in the world, derive far more happiness from their small incomes than, for example, the British (32nd on the list) do from their relatively large bank balances.

In fact, people in most rich countries including Austria, Netherlands, Switzerland, Canada, Japan and others are much more unhappier than their poorer counterparts in countries like the Dominican Republic and Armenia.

Most unfortunate, however, are Russians and people in some other parts of the former Soviet Union. They are neither rich nor happy, indicates the World Happiness Survey. Slovenia, Lithuania, Slovakia, Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Bulgaria and Moldova follow the United States in the list. The study shows that although the British have twice as much money to spend in real terms compared with 40 years ago, their perceived quality of life has not improved.

Earlier surveys revealed that many Britons thought money could bring happiness. The new study shows that such a link still exists in poor countries because a small increase in income can mean large improvements in lifestyle. However, beyond a certain income-level that direct relationship breaks down. According to the research, happiness in rich countries now is far more dependent on close personal relationships, good health and job satisfaction.

"People in Britain are generally less happy than they were ten years ago. Two-thirds would rather see the environment improved than have more economic growth and personal spending money," said Robert Worcester, visiting professor of government at the LSE and co-author of the study.

The researchers have concluded that although Britons are rich compared with most other countries, many suffer from an emotional poverty caused by consumerism and the breakdown of family life.

"We are being seduced by an economic juggernaut and our personal needs are not being met," said Nic Marks, a social sciences researcher at Surrey University who also worked on the report.

Soda cans and health hazards

Whenever you buy a can of coke or any other canned soft drink, please make sure that you wash the top with running water and soap or, if not available, drink with a straw.

A family friend's friend (of the 'original' originator of the mail) died after drinking a can of soda! Apparently, she didn't clean the top before drinking from the can. The top was encrusted with dried rat's urine which is toxic and obviously lethal!

Canned drinks and other foodstuffs are stored in warehouses and containers that are usually infested with rodents and then get transported to the retail outlets without being properly cleaned.

Jinnah Film Palgued by Controversy
© The Times (London)
September 5 1998

A new film on the founder of Pakistan has been attacked by all sides, writes Dalya Alberge Epic that enraged three nations.

The producer of an epic film about the founder of Pakistan, Muhammad Ali Jinnah, described yesterday how he was almost destroyed financially and physically by hostility towards the project in Pakistan, India and Britain.

Professor Akbar Ahmed, 55, a don at Selwyn College, Cambridge, and a respected Islamic scholar who has lived in Britain since 1988, has produced a film starring Christopher Lee in the title role and James Fox and Patricia Hodge as Earl and Countess Mountbatten of Burma.

Jinnah, which coincides with the 50th anniversary of his death this month and will be shown at the London Film Festival in the autumn, was made as much for "an international audience that knows little about the founder of Pakistan" as for young Pakistanis who needed to be reminded of their roots, Professor Ahmed said.

He began work on the film in the early 1990s and immediately encountered bitter confrontation on every side. He said: "The film was attacked in India as Pakistani propaganda. For them, there is something demonic about Jinnah, who broke the unity of India. It was attacked in Pakistan. They said I was a Hindu and a Zionist agent. It was described as a Hindu plot to destroy

"I was so frightened that, in the InterContinental Hotel in Karachi with Christopher Lee and the 100-strong crew, I was scared that someone would come up with a knife and stab us. It became the subject of national debate because of the importance of Jinnah. Through jealousy and malice, they were determined to destroy the film.

"In today's Pakistan, he is too great, almost untouchable, and in an indirect way I am holding up a mirror to Pakistan today, saying 'This is the man who created Pakistan and what have you become?'.

"I was attacked in Britain for being an uppity Pakistani challenging history. Mountbatten doesn't come out well in it for launching a hate campaign against Jinnah."

The movie is expected to offend many for exploring the relationship between India's first Prime Minister, Jawaharlal Nehru, and Lady Mountbatten - based, said Professor Ahmed, on her diaries and letters in which she spoke of the "strange relationship - most of it spiritual - which exists between us". Mountbatten will be portrayed as aloof and arrogant.

Pakistanis have been further outraged that Christopher Lee, an actor most associated with blood-sucking Dracula and horror movies, should play one of their heroes. The producer found himself having to deny reports that Lee was to be "blacked up".

"Jinnah was very fair in his complexion. He could have got away with being an Englishman with a bit of a tan. Every Pakistani who has seen rushes of the film thinks the likeness is extraordinary," he said.

Determined to produce Pakistan's answer to Braveheart - Mel Gibson's epic about the Scottish nationalist hero William Wallace - he raised more than A33.3 million to shoot it, more than half from Pakistanis in Britain and the United States.

Jinnah (1876-1948) has been described as the most undervalued world statesman of the 20th century, a man who altered the course of history and the map of the world. Professor Ahmed set out to portray him as a charismatic Muslim statesman who averted civil war between 90 million Muslims and 255 million Hindus by securing partition. Professor Ahmed said:

"This will explore the life of this extraordinary man, one of the great figures of history: a model of a modern Muslim leader who believes, for example, in human rights, minority rights and women's rights and who was a man of total integrity, taking only one rupee a month as his pay. He was the father of the nation.

"This is film as political debate . . . on the nature of Islam and how Muslims are to see themselves in the late 20th century."

Andrew Roberts, the author of Eminent Churchillians, is among historians who believe that Jinnah's role in the partition of India has long been misrepresented and said the script for Professor Ahmed's film was historically accurate.

"Insofar as Western filmgoers know anything about Jinnah at all, it is as the glowering, sulking villain in Sir Richard Attenborough's Gandhi. The film reduced Jinnah's arguments for a separate Muslim state to a simple jealousy of the Mahatma and of Nehru. It was as insulting to Pakistanis as it was historically inaccurate."

The soundtrack is being co-written by two British composers, Nigel Clarke, Professor of Composition at the London College of Music, and Michael Csanyl-Wills, who has just graduated from the Royal Academy of Music. They have written a score that blends Eastern and Western classical sounds. Although a release date in Britain is dependent on finding a distributor, the film has been accepted for the London Film Festival.

India Technology News: BT Tie Up to Provide Net Access

Bharti Enterprises has entered a 51:49 joint-venture partnership with British Telecom to offer Internet services in India.

An investment of around $10 million is expected to be pumped into the venture initially. An application to this effect is lying with the Foreign Investment Promotion Board.

Bharti Internet Limited, a fully owned Bharti company, was incorporated on June 9. This will be renamed Bharti-BT Internet Limited, with Bharti being the majority stakeholder.

The company expects to complete network implementation by November or December this year and start operation by January 1999. It expects to break even by three years. Bharti-BT Internet services will have points-of-presence in Delhi, Bombay and Bangalore initially and will be offering its services to customers in these cities.

This is due to the fact that 72 per cent of Internet subscribers in India are from these three cities. The company will also be looking into expanding operations, at a later stage in four more cities of Madras, Hyderabad, Ahmedabad and Calcutta.

These seven cities are expected to account for over 94 per cent of subscribers for the next seven years.

Bharti Enterprises is also understood to have hired the services of Cambridge Technology Partners, a Massachusetts-based technology consultancy company to evaluate the project and undertake network design and architecture review.

Various options being considered include backbone connectivity through very small aperture terminal links and leased lines from the Department of Telecommunications.

Incidentally, Cambridge Technologies has also worked with Citibank on the CyberMall implementation and provided the ICICI Bank Internet banking solution.

The company has plans to cater to all segments of the market requiring Internet services from home users to corporate power users.

The exact products and services portfolio is yet to be finalised, but is expected to include email, Web hosting, virtual private networks, intranets etc.

The tariffs have also not been worked out, but indications are that it will closely resemble VSNL's existing tariffs, at least initially.

VSNL's existing customer base is around 120,000 while its actual user base is about 466,000. Thus there is a large population of users who need Internet connections.

This would be the most likely target market for new ISPs. These service providers, including Bharti-BT Internet, are expected to offer differentiation in terms of customer services, support and sales channel delivery on the one hand while also providing a network service which will be fast, reliable and cheap.

Interesting U.S. Census Figures

Top 100 Indian surnames.

The 1990 census recorded 815,447 Indians in the United States. The mid-1995 census bureau estimate shows a 25 percent growth in the Asian population. Recent immigration trends indicate that the Indian population has grown 33 percent since 1990 to more than 1,080,000.

Top 100 Indian Surnames in US: Probable "Clone" spellings in parenthesis.

Name Percent Rank
Patel 12.16 1
Singh 7.05 2
Shah 4.40 3
Desai 1.53 4
Sharma 1.47 5
Kumar 1.44 6
Mehta 1.28 7
Gupta 1.25 8
Rao 0.89 9
Parikh(5) 0.63 11
Jain 0.60 12
Prasad 0.58 13
Amin 0.46 14
Joshi 0.45 15
Das 0.44 16
Gandhi 0.42 17
Bhatia 0.39 18
Bhatt(2) 0.39 19
Varghese 0.36 20
Chaudhry(3) 0.35 21
Sandhu 0.34 22
Agarwal(1) 0.33 23
Iqbal 0.32 24
Srinivasan 0.31 25
Arora 0.31 26
Gill 0.31 27
Sinha 0.29 28
Chandra 0.29 29
Malhotra 0.29 30
Parekh(5) 0.29 31
Kaur 0.28 32
Trivedi 0.27 33
Ghosh 0.27 34
Qureshi 0.27 35
Verma(6) 0.27 36
Dhillon 0.26 37
Dave 0.25 38
Mathur 0.25 39
Doshi 0.24 40
Sidhu 0.24 41
Lal 0.23 42
Sethi 0.23 43
Pandya 0.23 44
Khanna 0.23 45
Bhakta 0.23 46
Subramanian 0.22 47
Kapoor 0.22 48
Agrawal(1) 0.21 49
Murthy 0.21 50
Anand 0.21 51
Iyer 0.21 52
Mistry 0.21 53
Vyas 0.21 54
Krishnan 0.21 55
Grewal 0.21 56
Nair 0.21 57
Menon 0.20 58
Naik 0.20 59
Kulkarni 0.20 60
Banerjee 0.20 61
Chawla 0.20 62
Modi 0.20 63
Srivastava 0.19 64
Shukla 0.19 65
Sen 0.19 66
Mukherjee 0.19 67
Dalal 0.19 68
Aggarwal(1) 0.18 69
Puri 0.17 70
Garg 0.17 71
Soni 0.17 72
Parmar 0.17 73
Mohan 0.17 74
Datta 0.17 75
Prakash 0.16 76
Ahuja 0.16 77
Mishra(4) 0.16 78
Raman 0.16 79
Kapadia 0.16 80
Chowdhury(3) 0.16 81
Varma(6) 0.15 82
Goel 0.15 83
Kurian 0.15 84
Kothari 0.15 85
Basu 0.15 86
Rana 0.15 87
Bhat(2) 0.15 88
Sood 0.15 89
Pillai 0.15 90
Misra(4) 0.15 91
Chopra 0.15 92
athai 0.14 93
Mitra 0.14 94
Patil 0.14 95
Ramachandran 0.14 96
Ansari 0.14 97
Thakkar 0.14 98
Mehra 0.14 99
Kohli 0.14 100

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